Effect of Obesity in Pregnancy on Fetal Weight


  • Jovanka Ris Natalia Sinaga Universitas Lampung
  • Rodiani Universitas Lampung
  • Zulfadli




obesity, pregnancy, fetal weight


Obesity is a state of imbalance in body weight and height due to excessive fat tissue in the body. The incidence rate of overweight or obesity is increasing over time and has even become a global pandemic with a prevalence of 2.1 billion in 2013, increasing from 857 million cases in 1980. Obesity can be assessed from the body mass index (BMI) where World Health Organization (WHO) classifies obesity with BMI ≥ 30 kg / m2. Obesity generally occurs in pregnancy, especially pregnancies that occur above 35 years. Obesity is a high obstetric risk because it can increase the risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Complications that can occur in pregnant women with obesity in pregnant women are an increased risk of hypertension, gestational diabetes, spontaneous abortion and postpartum hemorrhage. The fetus can increase the risk of stillbirth in the antepartum period, intrapartum complications such as shoulder dystocia, macrosomia and increase the risk of fetal defects such as neural tube defects, spina bifida, congenital heart disease and omphalocele. Macrosomia is a condition in which the baby is born with a larger size or weight> 4000 grams, this is one of the complications of labor which causes increased morbidity and mortality in pregnancy because its complications in childbirth.


Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2013; 384(9945):766–81.

Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016. NCHS Data Brief. 2017; 288(288):1– 8

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS) 2013. Lap Nas 2013; 1–384.

Rachmi CN, Li M, Baur LA. Overweight and obesity in Indonesia : prevalence and risk factors d a literature review. Public Health. 2017; 147:20–9

Agnihotri S. Obesity: Time to re-examine carefor Pregnant Women. Br J Obes. 2016; 1(3):94–8.

Wheler L. Buku Saku Perawatan, Pranatal, dan Pascapartum. Jakarta: EGC; 2003.

Ezegwui HU, Ikeaka LC, Egbuji C.. Fetal Macrosomia : Obstetric Outcome of 311 cases in UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2011; 7-9: 14.

Yao R, Ananth CV, Park BY, Pereira L, Plante, LA. Obesity and the risk of stillbirth: A population-based cohort study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology; 2014.

Davies GAL, Maxwell C, McLeod L, Gagnon R, Basso M, Bos H, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SOGC Clinical Practice Guidelines: Obesity in pregnancy. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics: The Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Canada : SOGC;2010.

Jeffrey SF, Eleftheria MF. Biology of Obesity. In Harrisons Endocrinology: Philadelphia; 2013.

Irene P. Prevalensi obesitas pada anak taman kanak-kanak di kelurahan Cikini, kecamatan Mentang, DKI Jakarta dan hubungan dengan melewatkan makanan pagi. Jakarta: Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Indonesia; 2009.

Guyton, Arthur C, John E. Hall. Buku Ajar Fisiologi Kedokteran. Jakarta: EGC; 2014

Buku saku pemantauan status gizi. Direktorat Jendral Kesehatan Masyarakat Kementrian Kesehatan : Jakarta Selatan; 2017.

Lynch AM, Eckel RH, Murphy JR, Gibbs RS, West NA, Giclas PC, Holers VM. repregnancy obesity and complement system activation in early pregnancy and the subsequent development of preeclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology: 2012; 206:428.e1-8

Sewell MF, Huston-Presley L, Super DM, Catalano P. Increased neonatal fat mass, not lean body mass, is associated with maternal obesity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195: 1100-1103.

Prawirohardjo. Ilmu Kebidanan. Jakarta: Yayasan Bina Pustaka Sarwono Prawirohardjo; 2012.

Shaikh H.; Robinson, S.; Teoh, T.G. Management Of Maternal Obesity Prior To And During Pregnancy. Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2010. 15:77–82

Gaudet L, Zachary MF, Shi WW, Mark W. Maternal Obesity and Occurrence of Fetal Macrosomia: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis. BioMed Research International. 2014;ID 640291- p22

Sulistyoningsih H. Gizi untuk kesehatan ibu dan anak. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu; 2012.

Dewi, Kurnia ABF, Pujiatsuri, Nurul dan Ibnu F. Gizi untuk praktisi kesehatan. Graha ilmu. Yogyakarta; 2013.

The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Management of Obesity in Pregnancy. Melbourne: RANZCOG; 2013.

Gilmore LA, Redman LM. Weight gain in pregnancy and application of the 2009 IOM guidelines: toward a uniform approach. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015;23(3):507-511. doi:10.1002/oby.20951

Pellonperä O, Koivuniemi E, Vahlberg T, Mokkala K, Tertti K, Rönnemaa T, Laitinen K. Dietary quality influences body composition in overweight and obese pregnant women. Clinical Nutrition. 2018; 30:1–7.

Hales CM, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016. NCHS Data Brief: 2017; 288(288):1– 8.

Freitag H. Hamil aman dan nyaman diatas usia 30 tahun. Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo; 2014.



How to Cite

Sinaga, J. R. N., Rodiani, & Zulfadli. (2020). Effect of Obesity in Pregnancy on Fetal Weight. Medical Profession Journal of Lampung, 10(3), 539-544. https://doi.org/10.53089/medula.v10i3.134




Most read articles by the same author(s)