Colorectal Cancer Risk Factor


  • Naufal Rasyid Aswan Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lampung
  • Rizki Hanriko Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lampung



Risk Factor, Colorectal Cancer


Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon or rectum. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and second in women, and according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), colorectal cancer accounts for nearly 1.4 million new cases every year worldwide. In 2017, there were 1.8 million cases of colorectal cancer worldwide, with a standard incidence rate of 23.2 cases per 100,000 person-years. This article is a literature compiled to analyze the risk factors associated with colorectal events. The references used are articles published between 2012-2022. Colorectal cancer risk factors are divided into modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors. The most dominant non-modifiable risk factor is a history of IBD, followed by a family history of cancer, history of diabetes, age and gender. The most dominant modifiable risk factor is psychosocial stress, followed by alcohol consumption, smoking history, and obesity.

Author Biographies

Naufal Rasyid Aswan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lampung

Mahasiswa, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Lampung

Rizki Hanriko , Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Lampung

Bagian Ilmu Anatomi, Histologi, dan Patologi Anatomi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Lampung


Lewandowska A, Rudzki G, Lewandowski T, Stryjkowska-Góra A, Rudzki S. Title: Risk Factors for the Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Control. 2022;29(1):1-15.

American Cancer Society . Atlanta, Georgia: American Cancer Society; 2021. Accessed November 11, 2022.

Goodarzi E, Beiranvand R, Naemi H, Momenabadi V, Khazaei Z. Worldwide incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer and human development index (HDI): an ecological study. WCRJ. 2019;6(1):1-8.

GBD 2017 Colorectal Cancer Collaborators. The global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;4(12):913-933.

Cronin KA, Lake AJ, Scott S, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, part I: national cancer statistics. Cancer. 2018;124(13):2785-2800.

Martono M. Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kejadian Stroke Pada Usia Produktif. J Keperawatan Muhammadiyah. 2022;7(1):287–92.

Firuza KN, Khamsiyati SI, Lahdji A, Yekti M. Analisis Faktor Risiko Serangan Stroke Berulang pada Pasien Usia Produktif. Medica Arter. 2022;4(1):1–10.

Doubeni CA, Laiyemo AO, Major JM, et al. Socioeconomic status and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2012;118(14):3636-3644.

Kawakatsu Y, Koyanagi YN, Oze I, et al. Association between socioeconomic status and digestive tract cancers: a case-control study. Cancers. 2020;12(11):3258.

Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, et al. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(16):1599-1600.

Zhao Z, Feng Q, Yin Z, et al. Red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oncotarget. 2017;8(47):83306-83314.

Rawla P, Sunkara T, Barsouk A. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Gastroenterol Rev. 2019;14(2):89-103.

Karahalios A, Simpson JA, Baglietto L, et al. Change in weight and waist circumference and risk of colorectal cancer: results from the Melbourne collaborative cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:157.

Ordóñez-Mena JM, Walter V, Schöttker B, et al. Impact of prediagnostic smoking and smoking cessation on colorectal cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from cohorts within the CHANCES consortium. Ann Oncol. 2018;29(2):472-483.

Lutgens MWMD, van Oijen MGH, van der Heijden GJMG, Vleggaar FP, Siersema PD, Oldenburg B. Declining risk of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19(4):789-799.

McNabb S, Harrison TA, Albanes D, et al. Meta‐analysis of 16 studies of the association of alcohol with colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2020;146(3):861-873.

Azizi H, Esmaeili ED. Stressful life events and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study of Iran, 16; 2015:2403-2407.

Kikuchi N, Nishiyama T, Sawada T, et al. Perceived stress and colorectal cancer incidence: the Japan collaborative cohort study. Sci Rep. 2017;7:40363.

Lansdorp-Vogelaar I, Kuntz KM, Knudsen AB, et al. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21:728–36.

Kim SE, Paik HY, Yoon H. Sex- and gender-specific disparities in colorectal cancer risk. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:5167–75.

Park HC, Shin A, Kim BW. Data on the characteristics and the survival of Korean patients with colorectal cancer from the Korea central cancer registry. Ann Coloproctol. 2013;29:144–9.

De Rosa M, Pace U, Rega D, et al. Genetics, diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer (Review) Oncol Rep. 2015;34:1087–96.

Ricciardiello L, Ahnen DJ, Lynch PM. Chemoprevention of hereditary colon cancers: time for new strategies. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;13:352–61.

Jess T, Rungoe C, Peyrin-Biroulet L. Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;10:639–45.

Castano-Milla C, Chaparro M, Gisbert JP. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the declining risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;39:645–59.

Ma Y., Yang W., Song M., Smith-Warner S.A., Yang J., Li Y., Ma W., Hu Y., Ogino S., Hu F.B., et al. Type 2 diabetes and risk of colorectal cancer in two large U.S. prospective cohorts. Br. J. Cancer. 2018;119:1436–1442.

Pang Y., Kartsonaki C., Guo Y., Chen Y., Yang L., Bian Z., Bragg F., Millwood I., Shen L., Zhou S., et al. Diabetes, plasma glucose and incidence of colorectal cancer in Chinese adults: A prospective study of 0.5 million people. J. Epidemiol. Community Health. 2018;72:jech-2018.

Yao C., Nash G.F., Hickish T. Management of colorectal cancer and diabetes. J. R. Soc. Med. 2014;107:103–109.

eeters P.J., Bazelier M.T., Leufkens H.G., de Vries F., De Bruin M.L. The risk of colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: Associations with treatment stage and obesity. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:495–502.

American Cancer Society . Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figures 2017-2019. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2017.

Aykan NF. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer. Oncol Rev. 2015;9(1):288.



How to Cite

Aswan, N. R. ., & Hanriko , R. . (2023). Colorectal Cancer Risk Factor. Medical Profession Journal of Lampung, 13(2), 1-6.