Etiology, Pathophysiology, Histopathology, and Diagnosis of Seminoma


  • Nando Abdila Itsa Itsa Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung
  • Exsa Hadibrata Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung
  • Tri Umiana Soleha Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lampung



seminoma; etiology; pathophysiology; histopathology; diagnosis


Seminoma is the most common malignant germ cell tumor of the testes. This disease can also occur in the mediastinum, retroperitoneum, or other extra gonads.  This cancer often occurs in the age group of 15 to 35 years. Further knowledge regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, histopathology, and diagnosis of seminomas are needed to prevent and slow disease progression. Literature collection was carried out with inclusion criteria in the form of maximum published literature in 2000 and above.  Meanwhile, the exclusion criteria were literatures published in 1999 and below.  In this study, results were obtained regarding the suspected etiology of seminoma, which is related to estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity.  The pathophysiology of seminoma is thought to appear from the proliferation of immature spermatogonia and histopathologically visible diffuse pale cell arrangement disrupted by fibrovascular septa containing lymphocytes. The diagnosis of seminoma can be done by exploring patient’s history, physical examination, and imaging examinations, such as testicular ultrasound, CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis, CT scan of the chest and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan to see whether there are metastases.


Lamichhane A, Mukkamalla SKR. Seminoma. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022.

Faouzi S, Ouguellit S, Loriot Y. Stage 1 germ-cell tumour. Bull Cancer. 2019; 106(10):887-95.

Stephenson A, Eggener SE, Bass EB, Chelnick DM, Daneshmand S, Feldman D, Gilligan T, Karam JA, Leibovich B, Liauw SL, Masterson TA, Meeks JJ, Pierorazio PM, Sharma R, Sheinfeld J. Diagnosis and treatment of early stage testicular cancer: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2019; 202(2):272-81.

Banna GL, Nicolai N, Palmieri G, Ottaviano M, Balzarini L, Barone D, et al. Recommendations for surveillance and follow-up of men with testicular germ cell tumors: a multidisciplinary consensus conference by the Italian Germ Cell Cancer Group and the Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2019; 137:154-64.

Tourne M, Radulescu C, Allory Y. Testicular germ cell tumors: histopathological and molecular features. Bull Cancer. 2019; 106(4):328-41.

Alsdorf W, Seidel C, Bokemeyer C, Oing C. Current pharmacotherapy for testicular germ cell cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019; 20(7):837-50.

Dearnaley DP, Huddart RA, Horwich A. Regular review: managing testicular cancer. BMJ. 2001; 322:1583–8.

Adami HO, Bergström R, Möhner M, et al. Testicular cancer in nine northern European countries. Int J Cancer. 1994; 59:33–8.

Huyghe E, Matsuda T, Thonneau P. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review. J Urol. 2003; 170:5–11.

Parkin DM, Whelan SL, Ferlay J, et al. Cancer incidence in five continents. IARC Cancer Base; 2005.

Chung P, Warde P. Testicular cancer: seminoma. BMJ Clin Evid. 2011; 2011:1807.

Batool A, Karimi N, Wu XN, Chen SR, Liu YX. Testicular germ cell tumor: a comprehensive review. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019; 76(9):1713-27.

Chieffi P, De Martino M, Esposito F. New anti-cancer strategies in testicular germ cell tumors. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2019; 14(1):53-9.

Chieffi P, Chieffi S. Molecular biomarkers as potential targets for therapeutic strategies in human testicular germ cell tumors: an overview. J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(8):1641-6.

Rajpert-De Meyts E. Developmental model for the pathogenesis of testicular carcinoma in situ: genetic and environmental aspects. Hum Reprod Update. 2006; 12(3): 303-23.

Sperger JM, Chen X, Draper JS, Antosiewicz JE, Chon CH, Jones SB, et al. Gene expression patterns in human embryonic stem cells and human pluripotent germ cell tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100(23):13350-5.

Almstrup K, Hoei-Hansen CE, Nielsen JE, Wirkner U, Ansorge W, Skakkebaek NE, et al. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of testicular carcinoma in situ progression into overt tumours. Br J Cancer. 2005; 92(10):1934-41.

Cedeno JD, Light DE, Leslie SW. Testicular seminoma. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022.

Motzer RJ, Jonasch E, Agarwal N, Beard C, Bhayani S, Bolger GB, et al. Testicular cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2015; 13(6):772-99.

Downes M. Seminoma. [internet]; 2022 [disitasi tanggal 25 Juli 2022]. Tersedia dari:

Lamichhane A, Mukkamalla SKR. Seminoma. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022.

Schriefer P, Hartmann M, Oechsle K, Meyer CP, Klutmann S, Fisch M, et al. Positron emission tomography in germ cell tumors in men : possibilities and limitations. Urologe A. 2019; 58(4):418-23.

Nestler T, Baunacke M, Dräger D, von Landenberg N, Groeben C, Huber J. Testicular cancer guideline adherence and patterns of care in Germany: a nationwide survey. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2019; 28(1):e12917.

Leveridge MJ, Siemens DR, Brennan K, Izard JP, Karim S, An H, et al. Temporal trends in management and outcomes of testicular cancer: a population-based study. Cancer. 2018; 124(13):2724-32.

Esposito F, Boscia F, Franco R, Tornincasa M, Fusco A, Kitazawa S, et al. Down-regulation of oestrogen receptor-β associates with transcriptional co-regulator PATZ1 delocalization in human testicular seminomas. J Pathol. 2011; 224(1):110-20.

Smith ZL, Werntz RP, Eggener SE. Testicular cancer: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Med Clin North Am. 2018; 102(2):251-64.

Chieffi P. Aurora B: a new promising therapeutic target in cancer. Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2018; 7(2):141-4.

Portella G, Passaro C, Chieffi P. Aurora B: a new prognostic marker and therapeutic target in cancer. Curr Med Chem. 2011; 18(4):482-96.

Hart AH, Hartley L, Parker K, Ibrahim M, Looijenga LH, Pauchnik M, et al. The pluripotency homeobox gene NANOG is expressed in human germ cell tumors. Cancer. 2005; 104(10):2092-8.

De Martino M, Esposito F, Pellecchia S, Cortez Cardoso Penha R, Botti G, Fusco A, et al. HMGA1-regulating microRNAs let-7a and miR-26a are downregulated in human seminomas. Int J Mol Sci. 2020; 21(8).

Franco R, Esposito F, Fedele M, Liguori G, Pierantoni GM, Botti G, et al. Detection of high-mobility group proteins A1 and A2 represents a valid diagnostic marker in post-pubertal testicular germ cell tumours. J Pathol. 2008; 214(1):58-64.



How to Cite

Itsa, N. A. I., Exsa Hadibrata, & Tri Umiana Soleha. (2023). Etiology, Pathophysiology, Histopathology, and Diagnosis of Seminoma. Medical Profession Journal of Lampung, 13(2), 90-95.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>