Obesity in Children : Long-Term Causes and Consequences


  • Ananda Fitriliani Faculty of Medicine Lampung University
  • Bayu Anggileo Pramesona
  • Shinta Nareswari




child, obesity, consequences, anak, obesitas pada anak, konsekuensi


Obesity in children has reached epidemic levels in both developed and developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have a significant impact on physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children tend to be obese into adulthood and are more likely to develop non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity is not fully understood and is believed to be a disorder with various causes. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to result from increased calorie and fat intake. On the other hand, there is supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake through soft drinks, an increase in portion size, and a steady decline in physical activity play a major role in the increase in obesity rates worldwide. Child obesity can greatly affect children's physical, social and emotional well-being, and self-confidence. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by children. Many comorbid conditions such as metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders have also been seen to be associated with childhood obesity. The growing problem of childhood obesity can be slowed, if society focuses on its causes. Overweight and obesity cannot be solved through individual actions alone. A comprehensive response is needed to create a healthy environment that can support individuals in making healthy choices based on knowledge and skills related to health and nutrition. This response requires government commitment and leadership, long-term investment, and whole-of-society engagement to protect children's right to good health and well-being. Progress can be made if all actors remain committed to working together towards the common goal of ending childhood obesity. This literature review discusses obesity in children by explaining what risk factors influence and long-term consequences for children.

Author Biographies

Ananda Fitriliani, Faculty of Medicine Lampung University



Bayu Anggileo Pramesona



Shinta Nareswari




Rundle AG, Factor-Litvak P, Suglia SF, et al. Tracking of obesity in childhood into adulthood: effects on body mass index and fat mass index at age 50. Child Obes. 2020;16(3):226-233.

Sanyaolu A, Okorie C, Qi X, Locke J, Rehman S. Childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States: a public health concern. Glob Pediatr Health. 2019;6:2333794X19891305.

Yuan Y, Chu C, Zheng WL, et al. Body mass index trajectories in early life is predictive of cardiometabolic risk. J Pediatr. 2020;219:31-37.

He Y, Tian J, Oddy WH, Dwyer T, Venn AJ. Association of childhood obesity with female infertility in adulthood: a 25-year follow-up study. Fertil Steril. 2018;110(4):596-604.

Córdoba-Rodríguez DP, Rodriguez G, Moreno LA. Predicting of excess body fat in children. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2022;25(5):304-310.

Caprio S, Santoro N, Weiss R. Childhood obesity and the associated rise in cardiometabolic complications. Nat Metab. 2020;2(3):223-232.

Sagar R, Gupta T. Psychological aspects of obesity in children and adolescents. Indian J Pediatr. 2018;85(7):554-559.

Ma J, Qiao Y, Zhao P, et al. Breastfeeding and childhood obesity: A 12‐country study. Matern Child Nutr. 2020;16(3):e12984.

Zhang J, Wang H, Wang Z, et al. Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1-7.

Smith JD, Fu E, Kobayashi MA. Prevention and management of childhood obesity and its psychological and health comorbidities. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2020;16:351-378.

Weihrauch-Blüher S, Wiegand S. Risk factors and implications of childhood obesity. Curr Obes Rep. 2018;7(4):254-259.

Twaits A, Alwan NA. The association between area-based deprivation and change in body-mass index over time in primary school children: a population-based cohort study in Hampshire, UK. Int J Obes. 2020;44(3):628-636.

Gómez SF, Casas Esteve R, Subirana I, et al. Effect of a community-based childhood obesity intervention program on changes in anthropometric variables, incidence of obesity, and lifestyle choices in Spanish children aged 8 to 10 years. Eur J Pediatr. 2018;177(10):1531-1539.

Brown CL, Perrin EM. Obesity prevention and treatment in primary care. Acad Pediatr. 2018;18(7):736-745.

Smirk E, Mazahery H, Conlon CA, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among New Zealand children aged 8-12 years: a cross sectional study of sources and associates/correlates of consumption. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1-13.

Dunford EK, Popkin BM, Ng SW. Recent trends in junk food intake in US children and adolescents, 2003–2016. Am J Prev Med. 2020;59(1):49-58.

Jun S, Catellier DJ, Eldridge AL, Dwyer JT, Eicher-Miller HA, Bailey RL. Usual nutrient intakes from the diets of US children by WIC participation and income: findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. J Nutr. 2018;148(suppl_3):1567S-1574S.

An R, Shen J, Yang Q, Yang Y. Impact of built environment on physical activity and obesity among children and adolescents in China: a narrative systematic review. J Sport Health Sci. 2019;8(2):153-169.

Grasdalsmoen M, Eriksen HR, Lønning KJ, Sivertsen B. Physical exercise and body-mass index in young adults: a national survey of Norwegian university students. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1-9.

Matos R, Monteiro D, Amaro N, et al. Parents’ and Children’s (6–12 Years Old) Physical Activity Association: A Systematic Review from 2001 to 2020. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(23):12651.

Marsh S, Gerritsen S, Taylor R, Galland B, Parag V, Maddison R. Promotion of family routines and positive parent-child interactions for obesity prevention: protocol for the 3 pillars study randomized controlled trial. JMIR Res Protoc. 2019;8(4):e12792.

Mineshita Y, Kim HK, Chijiki H, et al. Screen time duration and timing: effects on obesity, physical activity, dry eyes, and learning ability in elementary school children. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1-11.

Malik SM, Rahmadi FA, Wistiani W. Influence of screen time and sleep duration on obesity in early adolescents. Paediatr Indones. 2020;60(3):154-159.

Otterbach L, Mena NZ, Greene G, Redding CA, De Groot A, Tovar A. Community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for parents improves health behaviors and food parenting practices among Hispanic, low-income parents. BMC Obes. 2018;5(1):1-10.

Martini MG, Barona-Martinez M, Micali N. Eating disorders mothers and their children: a systematic review of the literature. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2020;23(4):449-467.

Daniels LA. Feeding practices and parenting: A pathway to child health and family happiness. Ann Nutr Metab. 2019;74(2):29-42.

Novitasari PD, Wanda D. Maternal feeding practice and its relationship with stunting in children. Pediatr Rep. 2020;12(s1):8698.

Qiao J, Dai LJ, Zhang Q, Ouyang YQ. A meta-analysis of the association between breastfeeding and early childhood obesity. J Pediatr Nurs. 2020;53:57-66.

Poorolajal J, Sahraei F, Mohamdadi Y, Doosti-Irani A, Moradi L. Behavioral factors influencing childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2020;14(2):109-118.

Yusuf ZI, Dongarwar D, Yusuf RA, Bell M, Harris T, Salihu HM. Social determinants of overweight and obesity among children in the United States. Int J Matern Child Health AIDS. 2020;9(1):22.

Curci SG, Hernández JC, Luecken LJ, Perez M. Multilevel prenatal socioeconomic determinants of Mexican American children’s weight: Mediation by breastfeeding. Health Psychol. 2020;39(11):997.

Janicke DM, Mitchell TB, Basch MC, et al. Meta-analysis of lifestyle modification interventions addressing overweight and obesity in preschool-age children. Health Psychol. 2021;40(9):631.

Kansra AR, Lakkunarajah S, Jay MS. Childhood and adolescent obesity: a review. Front Pediatr. 2021;8:581461.



How to Cite

Fitriliani, A., Pramesona, B. A., & Nareswari, S. (2023). Obesity in Children : Long-Term Causes and Consequences. Medical Profession Journal of Lampung, 13(1), 104-109. https://doi.org/10.53089/medula.v13i1.605