Literature Review: Side Effects of Using Hypertension Drugs


  • Sekar Anastry Putri Medical Faculty, Lampung University
  • Dwi Aulia Ramdini
  • Afriyani
  • M. Fitra Wardhana



Drug Side Effects, Hypertension, Beta Blocker, Diuretik, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI), Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB), Dan Calcium-Channel Blocker (CCB).


Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hypertension also has another term, namely "silent killer" which can be interpreted that it is not uncommon for people with hypertension to find it difficult to realize or even not to feel the warning symptoms of their disease. Treatment for hypertensive patients is a treatment therapy that needs to be done in the long term or for life. The problem often occurs in the treatment of chronic diseases that require long-term treatment such as hypertension because there are still many patients who do not comply with the treatment therapy they should be undergoing. One of the causes of non-compliance is the presence of patients who experience side effects from treatment. A drug side effect is an unwanted event and is detrimental to the patient as a result of drug use. Side effects that often occur in amlodipine therapy are: palpitations, flushing, ankle edema, hypotension, headache and nausea. Captropil can cause hyperkalemia and dry cough. Side effects of beta blockers that can occur are insomnia, hallucinations and depression. Clonidine can cause side effects such as dry mouth with symptoms of dry and cracked lips. Treatment with hydrochlorothiazide generally causes complaints related to side effects of the drug including frequent urination, feeling weak and wanting to faint, and abnormal heart rate. The use of diuretics can cause increased levels of uric acid or hyperuricemia resulting in deposition of uric acid, acute arthritis, nephrolithiasis.

Author Biographies

Dwi Aulia Ramdini






M. Fitra Wardhana




Fadhilla Sandy F, Pramita Destiani D. Review : Efek Merugikan Obat Antihipertensi Terhadap Perpanjangan Interval Qt.; 2019.

Asgedom SW, Atey TM, Desse TA. Antihypertensive medication adherence and associated factors among adult hypertensive patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital , southwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. Published online 2018:1-8.

Unger T, Borghi C, Charchar F, et al. 2020 International Society of Hypertension Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2020;75(6):1334-1357.

Wahyuni AS, Mukhtar Z, Pakpahan DJR, et al. Adherence to consuming medication for hypertension patients at primary health care in medan city. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019;7(20):3483-3487.

Brilleman SL, Metcalfe C, Peters TJ, Hollingworth W. The Reporting of Treatment Nonadherence and Its Associated Impact on Economic Evaluations Conducted Alongside Randomized Trials : A Systematic Review. Value in Health. 2016;19(1):99-108.

Dwi PS, Chrisandyani D. Gambaran Efek Samping Obat Antihipertensi Pada Pasien Hipertensidi Instalasi Rawat Inap Rs Pku Muhammadiyah Yogyakartaperiode Oktober-November 2009. Majalah Farmaseutik. 2010;6(2):19-25.

Dipiro JT, Talbert GC, Yee GR, Matzke BG, Wells LMP. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach. 10th ed. McGraw-Hill Education Companies; 2016.

Sangam K, Devireddy P, Konuru V. Calcium Channel Blockers Induced Peripheral Edema. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research . 2016;7(6):290-293.

Khadka S, Joshi R, Shrestha DB, et al. Amlodipine-Induced Pedal Edema and Its Relation to Other Variables in Patients at a Tertiary Level Hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Pharmacy Technology. 2019;35(2):51-55.

Nugraheni TP, Hidayat L. Resiko Efek Samping Edema terhadap Penggunaan Amlodipin (CCBs) sebagai Antihipertensi: Kajian Literatur. Jurnal Pendidikan Tambusai . 2021;5(3).

Sanghavi K, Someshwari M, Rajanandh MG, Seenivasan P. Amlodipine Induced Severe Pedal Edema: A Case Report from a Tertiary Care Hospital. J Pharmacovigil. 2017;5(5).

Laurent S. Antihypertensive drugs. Pharmacol Res. Published online 2017.

Kristanti P. Efektifitas Dan Efek Samping Penggunaan Obat Antihipertensi Pada Pasien Hipertensi Di Puskesmas Kalirungkut Surabaya. Calyptra : Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa Universitas Surabaya. 2015;4(2).

Rizki YR, Farm S, Si M. Gambaran Efek Samping Obat Antihipertensi Pada Pasien Hipertensi di Instalasi Rawat Inap di Rumah Sakit X Tahun 2018. Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi. 2018;2(1).

Guo L, Fu B, Liu Y, Hao N, Ji Y, Yang H. Diuretic resistance in patient with kidney disease : Challenges and opportunities. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2023;157.

Zinkovsky D. Side effects, ADRs & ADEs of diuretics. In: ; 2021:259-265.

Irawan A. Serum Creatinine Escalates as the Outcome of ACEi or ARB Usage. Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy. 2014;3(3):82-87.



How to Cite

Putri, S. A., Dwi Aulia Ramdini, Afriyani, & M. Fitra Wardhana. (2023). Literature Review: Side Effects of Using Hypertension Drugs. Medical Profession Journal of Lampung, 13(4), 583-589.